Regulation of tryptase from human lung mast cells by heparin. Stabilization of the active tetramer.

The Journal of biological chemistry (1986-06-05)
L B Schwartz, T R Bradford

Tryptase was shown to be stabilized as an enzymatically active tetramer by association with heparin and dissociated to inactive monomers in the absence of heparin at 37 degrees C in physiologic buffer and in plasma. There was a 50% loss of tryptase activity at 37 degrees C by 6-8 min in both physiologic buffer and plasma. When heparin glycosaminoglycan was present, tryptase retained nearly full activity for 2 h in buffer and in plasma. Tryptase activity also decayed under standard assay conditions in the presence of synthetic ester and peptide substrates unless bound to heparin. That tryptase is bound to heparin at the pH and physiologic NaCl concentrations employed was shown by chromatography of tryptase on heparin-agarose, gel filtration, and velocity sedimentation. Elution of tryptase from heparin-agarose occurred at 0.8 M NaCl. Maximal stabilization of tryptase by heparin occurred at a weight ratio to tryptase that was equal to or greater than unity. Kcat/Km ratios for tryptase-heparin at 0.15 M NaCl and 37 degrees C were 0.9 X 10(6) s-1 M-1 for tosyl-L-Gly-Pro-Lys-p-nitroanilide and 1.7 X 10(6) s-1 M-1 for p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester and are among the highest reported for tryptic enzymes. The mechanism of heparin-dependent stabilization of tryptase was not due to indirect ion binding properties of heparin and was analyzed by Superose 12 high performance liquid chromatography. Active enzyme eluted with an apparent Mr of 132,000 +/- 10,000 (n = 3, +/- S.D.), whereas tryptase inactivated by incubation without heparin eluted with an apparent Mr of 34,000. The tetrameric structure of diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inhibited tryptase was also preserved after incubation with heparin at 37 degrees C but was reduced to monomeric subunits after incubation without heparin. That no appreciable degradation of tryptase occurs under conditions that cause dissociation of subunits was directly shown by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Two different subunits of 34,000 and 33,000 Mr (after reduction) present in the intact enzyme (calculated to be 134,000 Mr) were also detected unchanged after inactivation of tryptase by dissociation of its subunits. Thus, the selective localization and association of heparin and tryptase in the human mast cell secretory granule most likely plays a major role in the regulation of tryptase after secretion.

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Tryptase from human lung, buffered aqueous solution, ≥5 units/mg protein
Heparin sodium salt from porcine intestinal mucosa, endotoxin, free