We have developed a new method for highly selective determination of the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) concentration using a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique and two different biosensors. UCH-L1 was captured from a solution by immobilized specific rabbit monoclonal antibody or specific LDN-57444 inhibitor due to formation of receptor-UCH-L1 complex on the biosensor surface. The analytically useful dynamic response range of both biosensors is between 0.1 and 2.5ng/ml. The detection limit is 0.06ng/ml for the biosensor with antibody and 0.08ng/ml for the biosensor with inhibitor. Biosensors based on both antibody and inhibitor were found to be suitable for quantitative determination of the UCH-L1 and exhibit good tolerance to the potential interferents. Both biosensors gave comparable results in the range of 0 to 0.20ng/ml for plasma samples and 0.30 to 0.49ng/ml for cerebrospinal fluid samples. To validate the new methods, comparative determination of UCH-L1 by the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was performed. In general, in terms of UCH-L1 concentration, a good correlation between SPRI and ELISA was found. The developed biosensors can be used successfully for the determination of UCH-L1 in body fluids.