Transglutaminases Are Active in Perivascular Adipose Tissue.

International journal of molecular sciences (2021-04-04)
Alexis N Orr, Janice M Thompson, Janae M Lyttle, Stephanie W Watts

Transglutaminases (TGs) are crosslinking enzymes best known for their vascular remodeling in hypertension. They require calcium to form an isopeptide bond, connecting a glutamine to a protein bound lysine residue or a free amine donor such as norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT). We discovered that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contains significant amounts of these amines, making PVAT an ideal model to test interactions of amines and TGs. We hypothesized that transglutaminases are active in PVAT. Real time RT-PCR determined that Sprague Dawley rat aortic, superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and mesenteric resistance vessel (MR) PVATs express TG2 and blood coagulation Factor-XIII (FXIII) mRNA. Consistent with this, immunohistochemical analyses support that these PVATs all express TG2 and FXIII protein. The activity of TG2 and FXIII was investigated in tissue sections using substrate peptides that label active TGs when in a catalyzing calcium solution. Both TG2 and FXIII were active in rat aortic PVAT, SMAPVAT, and MRPVAT. Western blot analysis determined that the known TG inhibitor cystamine reduced incorporation of experimentally added amine donor 5-(biotinamido)pentylamine (BAP) into MRPVAT. Finally, experimentally added NE competitively inhibited incorporation of BAP into MRPVAT adipocytes. Further studies to determine the identity of amidated proteins will give insight into how these enzymes contribute to functions of PVAT and, ultimately, blood pressure.

Product Number
Product Description

牛血清白蛋白 来源于牛血清, lyophilized powder, ≥96% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
DL-去甲肾上腺素 盐酸盐, crystalline, ≥97% (TLC)