To investigate the association of the haplotype of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Tibetans. Four polymorphisms of the SLC11A1 gene [5' (GT)n, INT4, D53N, and 3' UTR] were investigated by denaturalization high performance liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 140 patients (the patient group) and 139 PPD-positive healthy controls (the control group) of the Tibetan nationality from June 2004 until January 2005. The relationship between the haplotype and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in these patients was studied by chi2 test, and the linkage disequilibrium as well as the haplotype were analyzed by the SHESIS software. The haplotype frequencies of 5'(GT)9/INT4 G, 3'UTR TGTG/D543N G, 3'UTR TGTG del/D543N A were 64.8% (181/280), 76.6% (215/280), 12.0% (34/280) among the patients and 78.1% (217/276), 84.4% (235/276), 6.4% (18/276) among the controls. 5' (GT)9/INT4 G, 3'UTR TGTG/D543N G haplotypes rendered a lower risk (chi2 = 11.026, P<0.01, chi2 = 6.547, P<0.05, respectively), but 3'UTR TGTG del/D543N A haplotype a higher risk (chi2 = 6.547, P<0.05) for tuberculosis. 5' (GT)9/INT4 G, 3'UTR TGTG/D543N G and 3'UTR TGTG del/D543N A haplotypes of the SLC11A1 gene may be associated with the susceptibility of the Tibetan population to pulmonary tuberculosis.