The use of neonicotinoids in agriculture is a critical environmental protection issue. Although there has been considerable research on pollinator exposure and aquatic toxicological effects, few studies have investigated the chronic impacts on soil-dwelling species. Given the application of neonicotinoids into soil systems, there is the potential for risk to soil invertebrates. The toxicity of 2 commercial formulations containing the active ingredients (a.i.) thiamethoxam (Actara® 240SC) or clothianidin (Titan™) was investigated using 3 soil invertebrate species: Oppia nitens, Eisenia andrei, and Folsomia candida. No adverse effects were observed for O. nitens at the highest tested concentrations (≥92 mg a.i./kg dry soil) after a 28-d exposure. Exposure to clothianidin resulted in a 28-d median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.069 (95% confidence limits: 0.039-0.12) mg/kg dry soil for F. candida, and a 56-d IC50 of 0.26 (0.22-3.2) mg a.i./kg dry soil for E. andrei. Exposure to thiamethoxam was less toxic, with IC50s of 0.36 (0.19-0.66) and 3.0 (2.2-4.0) mg a.i./kg dry soil for F. candida and E. andrei reproduction, respectively. The observed toxicity for F. candida adult survival and reproduction and for E. andrei reproduction occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, because clothianidin is a degradation product of thiamethoxam, and detection of clothianidin rose to levels of concern in the thiamethoxam-amended soils over time, the observed toxicity may be partly attributed to the presence of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:2111-2120. © 2019 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
Investigación. Desarrollo. Producción.
Somos un proveedor líder para la industria de Ciencias de la Vida con soluciones y servicios para investigación, desarrollo y producción biotecnológicos, y para desarrollo y producción de tratamientos farmacéuticos
© 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Alemania y/o sus filiales. Todos los derechos reservados.