A spontaneously blinking fluorophore based on intramolecular spirocyclization for live-cell super-resolution imaging.

Nature chemistry (2014-07-24)
Shin-Nosuke Uno, Mako Kamiya, Toshitada Yoshihara, Ko Sugawara, Kohki Okabe, Mehmet C Tarhan, Hiroyuki Fujita, Takashi Funatsu, Yasushi Okada, Seiji Tobita, Yasuteru Urano
RESUMEN

Single-molecule localization microscopy is used to construct super-resolution images, but generally requires prior intense laser irradiation and in some cases additives, such as thiols, to induce on-off switching of fluorophores. These requirements limit the potential applications of this methodology. Here, we report a first-in-class spontaneously blinking fluorophore based on an intramolecular spirocyclization reaction. Optimization of the intramolecular nucleophile and rhodamine-based fluorophore (electrophile) provide a suitable lifetime for the fluorescent open form, and equilibrium between the open form and the non-fluorescent closed form. We show that this spontaneously blinking fluorophore is suitable for single-molecule localization microscopy imaging deep inside cells and for tracking the motion of structures in living cells. We further demonstrate the advantages of this fluorophore over existing methodologies by applying it to nuclear pore structures located far above the coverslip with a spinning-disk confocal microscope and for repetitive time-lapse super-resolution imaging of microtubules in live cells for up to 1 h.

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Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol Red, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol Red, ACS reagent