Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

Nature communications (2015-05-09)
Jixian Xu, Andrei Buin, Alexander H Ip, Wei Li, Oleksandr Voznyy, Riccardo Comin, Mingjian Yuan, Seokmin Jeon, Zhijun Ning, Jeffrey J McDowell, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Jon-Paul Sun, Xinzheng Lan, Li Na Quan, Dong Ha Kim, Ian G Hill, Peter Maksymovych, Edward H Sargent

Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

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N,N-Dimethylformamide, anhydrous, 99.8%
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