Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors influence the risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans. To date, studies of the impact of environment on AUD risk have primarily focused on psychological characteristics or on the effects of developmental exposure to ethanol (EtOH). We recently observed that modifying levels of the long-chain ω-3 (LC ω-3) fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), alters acute physiological responses to EtOH in Caenorhabditis elegans. Because mammals derive ω-3 fatty acids from their diet, here we asked if manipulating dietary levels of LC ω-3 fatty acids can affect EtOH-responsive behaviors in mice. We used 2 well-characterized inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2), which differ in their responses to EtOH. Age-matched young adult male mice were maintained on isocaloric diets that differed only by being enriched or depleted in LC ω-3 fatty acids. Animals were subsequently tested for acute EtOH sensitivity (locomotor activation and sedation), voluntary consumption, and metabolism. Fat deposition was also determined. We found that dietary levels of LC ω-3s altered EtOH sensitivity and consumption in a genotype-specific manner. Both B6 and D2 animals fed high LC ω-3 diets demonstrated lower EtOH-induced locomotor stimulation than those fed low LC ω-3 diets. EtOH sedation and EtOH metabolism were greater in D2, but not B6 mice on the high LC ω-3 diet. Conversely, LC ω-3 dietary manipulation altered EtOH consumption in B6, but not in D2 mice. B6 mice on a high LC ω-3 diet consumed more EtOH in a 2-bottle choice intermittent access model than B6 mice on a low LC ω-3 diet. Because EtOH sensitivity is predictive of risk of developing AUD in humans, our data indicate that dietary LC ω-3 levels should be evaluated for their impact on AUD risk in humans. Further, these studies indicate that genetic background can interact with fatty acids in the diet to significantly alter EtOH-responsive behaviors.