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Role of Glutamine Synthetase Isogenes and Herbicide Metabolism in the Mechanism of Resistance to Glufosinate in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum Biotypes from Oregon.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry (2019-05-09)
Caio A C G Brunharo, Hudson K Takano, Carol A Mallory-Smith, Franck E Dayan, Bradley D Hanson
ABSTRACT

Glufosinate-resistant Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum biotypes from Oregon exhibited resistance levels up to 2.8-fold the field rate. One resistant biotype (MG) had an amino acid substitution in glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2), whereas the other (OR) exhibited the wild-type genotype. We hypothesized that the amino acid substitution in GS2 is involved in the resistance mechanism in MG and that non-target site resistance mechanisms are present in OR. OR metabolized glufosinate faster than the other two biotypes, with >75% of the herbicide metabolized in comparison to 50% in MG and the susceptible biotype. A mutation in GS2 co-segregating with resistance in MG did not reduce the enzyme activity, with results further supported by our enzyme homology models. This research supports the conclusion that a metabolism mechanism of glufosinate resistance is present in OR and that glufosinate resistance in MG is not due to an altered target site.