Combined Osmotic and Membrane Distillation for Concentration of Anthocyanin from Muscadine Pomace.

Journal of food science (2019-07-18)
Zahra Anari, Chuqiao Mai, Arijit Sengupta, Luke Howard, Cindi Brownmiller, S Ranil Wickramasinghe

Bioactive anthocyanins from aqueous extracts of muscadine grape pomace were concentrated using osmotic distillation (OD) and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) using polypropylene (PP) and poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) membranes. The driving force for OD is created by using a high concentration brine solution while the driving force for DCMD is generated by elevating the feed temperature relative to the permeate temperature. The brine concentration used was 4 M. The lowest fluxes were obtained for OD. Given the temperature sensitive nature of anthocyanins, the maximum temperature difference during DCMD was limited to 30 °C. The feed temperature was 40 °C and the permeate at 10 °C. Consequently, the maximum flux during DCMD was also limited. A combination of OD and DCMD was found to give the highest fluxes. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify anthocyanins, cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, peonidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, and malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside. The results obtained here suggest that, though water fluxes for DI water feed streams for PP and ECTFE membrane were similar, the fluxes obtained for the two membranes when using muscadine pomace extracts were different. Concentration factors of close to 3 was obtained for anthocyanins. Membranes also showed slightly different performance in the concentration process. Membrane surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results suggest that adsorption of these anthocyanins on the membrane surface lead to performance differences. In an actual operation, selection of an appropriate membrane and regeneration of the membrane will be important for optimized performance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Anthocyanins are valuable therapeutic compounds, which are found in the solid residue left following fruit juice pressing. However, recovery and concentration of these therapeutic compounds remains challenging due to their stability. Here, a novel membrane-based unit operation has been investigated in order to concentrate the anthocyanins that have been extracted into aqueous solutions. The unit operation investigated here use mild processing conditions. Insights into the factors that need to be considered when optimizing of the unit operation for commercialization are discussed.

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Pyrvinium pamoate salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)