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  • Concurrent Targeting of Glutaminolysis and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 (GRM1) Reduces Glutamate Bioavailability in GRM1+ Melanoma.

Concurrent Targeting of Glutaminolysis and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 (GRM1) Reduces Glutamate Bioavailability in GRM1+ Melanoma.

Cancer research (2019-04-17)
Raj Shah, Simar J Singh, Kevinn Eddy, Fabian V Filipp, Suzie Chen
ABSTRAKT

Aberrant glutamatergic signaling has been implicated in altered metabolic activity in many cancer types, including malignant melanoma. Previously, we have illustrated the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1) in neoplastic transformation of melanocytes in vitro and spontaneous metastatic melanoma in vivo. In this study, we showed that autocrine stimulation constitutively activates the GRM1 receptor and its downstream mitogenic signaling. GRM1-activated (GRM1+) melanomas exhibited significantly increased expression of glutaminase (GLS), which catalyzes the first step in the conversion of glutamine to glutamate. In cultured GRM1+ melanoma cell lines, CB-839, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of GLS, suppressed cell proliferation, while riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamate release, promoted apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Combined treatment with CB-839 and riluzole treatment proved to be superior to single-agent treatment, restricting glutamate bioavailability and leading to effective suppression of tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor progression in vivo. Hyperactivation of GRM1 in malignant melanoma is an oncogenic driver, which acts independently of canonical melanoma proto-oncogenes, BRAF or NRAS. Overall, these results indicate that expression of GRM1 promotes a metabolic phenotype that supports increased glutamate production and autocrine glutamatergic signaling, which can be pharmacologically targeted by decreasing glutamate bioavailability and the GLS-dependent glutamine to glutamate conversion. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that targeting glutaminolytic glutamate bioavailability is an effective therapeutic strategy for GRM1-activated tumors.

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