In this work, a novel strategy for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) detection was established by using a ratiometric nanosensor with the combination of fluorescence and second-order scattering (SOS). The practical ratiometric nanosensor was synthesized simply by mixing fluorescent dye ethidium bromide (EB) and nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) which was synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method with Victoria Blue B, possessing three emission peaks at 472 nm, 560 nm and 600 nm under a single wavelength excitation of 280 nm, respectively. The EB served as the reference signal label, and the N-CDs, having response to the analytes, acted as the response signal label. To achieve ratiometric detection, the fluorescence emission of the N-CDs was turned off and the SOS emission was turned on with the addition of the target PFOS. To achieve colorimetric detection, with the help of EB, the fluorescence of the system changed from green to orange. Under the optimal conditions, the difference of F472/I568 of the nanosensor had good linearity against the concentrations of PFOS within a linear range of 0-2.0 μM. The limit of detection was as low as 27.8 nM, which was low enough for the detection of PFOS in water samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the detection of PFOS with RSD <1.67%. The results show that the as-prepared N-CDs/EB ratiometric nanosensor has potential application for the detection of PFOS in environmental monitoring.