Perfluoroalkyl acids, including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), are fluorinated organic compounds used as surfactants and water and stain repellents in carpets, paper, and textiles, with characteristics to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PFHxS is found in umbilical cord blood, human milk and child serum from all over the world. We have recently reported that neonatal exposure to certain perfluoroalkyl acids, PFOS and PFOA, can induce persistent aberrations in spontaneous behavior and also affect learning and memory functions in the adult animal. The present study indicates that a single exposure to PFHxS on postnatal day 10, during a vulnerable period of brain development can alter adult spontaneous behavior and cognitive function in both male and female mice, effects that are both dose-response related and long-lasting/irreversible. PFHxS affected the cholinergic system, manifested as altered nicotine-induced behavior in adult animals. This is also in agreement with earlier studies on neonatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA. The present findings show that PFHxS, a member of the perfluoroalkyl acid group, can act as a developmental neurotoxicant and affect the cholinergic system and cognitive function and the effects show similarities with effects earlier reported after neonatal exposure to other POPs, such as bisphenol A, PBDEs and PCBs.