The TiO2 nanotubes by anodization have been extensively studied for medical implant and orthopedic applications because of enhancing bone development. In the present study, a new nano-foveolae structure verified by SEM and AFM was prepared by simulating the nanotubes exfoliation from anodized Ti. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were used to investigate the effects of new nanoscale surface on cell spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic gene expression. The new nano-foveolae structure supported preosteoblast better spreading, more filopodiaes shown by SEM (4 h), and lower proliferation (72 h) than the smooth Ti. By two weeks, the new nanoscale surface induced higher expression of osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen I (COL I) with real-time RT-PCR compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that the new nano-foveolae structure provides a favorable surface for functions of bone cells.
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