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  • FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities.

FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities.

Cell death & disease (2016-02-06)
E Delmas, N Jah, C Pirou, S Bouleau, N Le Floch, J-L Vayssière, B Mignotte, F Renaud

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a prototypic member of the FGFs family overexpressed in various tumors. Contrarily to most FGFs, FGF1 lacks a secretion peptide signal and acts mainly in an intracellular and nuclear manner. Intracellular FGF1 induces cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We previously showed that intracellular FGF1 induces neuronal differentiation and inhibits both p53- and serum-free-medium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. FGF1 nuclear localization is required for these intracellular activities, suggesting that FGF1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal differentiation by new nuclear pathways. To better characterize intracellular FGF1 pathways, we studied the effect of three mutations localized in the C-terminal domain of FGF1 (i.e., FGF1(K132E), FGF1(S130A) and FGF1(S130D)) on FGF1 neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities in PC12 cells. The change of the serine 130 to alanine precludes FGF1 phosphorylation, while its mutation to aspartic acid mimics phosphorylation. These FGF1 mutants kept both a nuclear and cytosolic localization in PC12 cells. Our study highlights for the first time the role of FGF1 phosphorylation and the implication of FGF1 C-terminal domain on its intracellular activities. Indeed, we show that the K132E mutation inhibits both the neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities of FGF1, suggesting a regulatory activity for FGF1 C terminus. Furthermore, we observed that both FGF1(S130A) and FGF1(S130D) mutant forms induced PC12 cells neuronal differentiation. Therefore, FGF1 phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Then, we showed that only FGF1(S130A) protects PC12 cells against p53-dependent apoptosis, thus phosphorylation appears to inhibit FGF1 anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells. Altogether, our results show that phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1 neurotrophic activity but inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity after p53-dependent apoptosis induction, giving new insight into the poorly described FGF1 intracrine/nuclear pathway. The study of nuclear pathways could be crucial to identify key regulators involved in neuronal differentiation, tumor progression and resistances to radio- and chemo-therapy.

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