Barrier disruption and the resulting continuous exposure to allergens are presumed to be responsible for the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the mechanism through which skin barrier function is disrupted in patients with AD remains unclear. Taking into account the fact that the TH2 milieu impairs keratinocyte terminal differentiation, we sought to clarify our hypothesis that the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays a critical role in skin barrier function and can be a therapeutic target for AD. We analyzed the mechanism of keratinocyte differentiation using a microarray and small interfering RNA targeting STATs. We studied the effect of the JAK inhibitor JTE-052 on keratinocyte differentiation using the human skin equivalent model and normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We applied topical JAK inhibitor onto NC/Nga mice, dry skin model mice, and human skin grafted to immunocompromised mice. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. STAT3 and STAT6 are involved in keratinocyte differentiation and chemokine production by keratinocytes, respectively. Topical application of the JAK inhibitor suppressed STAT3 activation and improved skin barrier function, permitting increases in levels of terminal differentiation proteins, such as filaggrin, and natural moisturizing factors in models of AD and dry skin and in human skin. STAT3 signaling is a key element that regulates keratinocyte differentiation. The JAK inhibitor can be a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of disrupted barrier function in patients with AD.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.