Merck

Degradation of phenol by using magnetic photocatalysts of titania.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research (2013-04-05)
Chiung-Fen Chang, I-Peng Tseng
ABSTRACT

Magnetic TiO2 (MT) composites were prepared and applied to degrading phenol, which is one of the listed priority pollutants. The effects of heat treatment under preparation on the photocatalytic activity of MT composites have been investigated by varying the soaking time under a constant final temperature of 823 K. The total organic carbon and ring-remaining intermediates of o-DHB, p-DHB and 1,4-BQ in solution were detected during the photodegradation of phenol. All the resulting MT composites were the single-phase anatase and magnetite judged by X-ray diffraction patterns. The calcination of the as-prepared particles was proven to be extremely crucial to the photocatalytic activity. The best condition of heat treatment was found to be soaking time of 2 h at T = 823 K due to the good performance of photocatalytic activity, stable magnetic property, and reusability over three times. The results lead to the conclusion that recyclable MT composites prepared in this study, which belonged to the category of recyclable green materials, exhibit good photocatalytic activity to degrade phenol so as to possess applicable potential for the degradation of refractory organics in the aqueous solution. Furthermore, the environmental and health impacts were reduced as MT composites were applied in the treatment of water pollution.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol solution, Saturated with 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.3 ± 0.2, BioReagent, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol solution, Equilibrated with 10 mM Tris HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, BioReagent, for molecular biology
Supelco
Phenol, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, ≥99.5% (GC), crystalline (detached)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.5-100.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, TE-saturated, ~73% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, ≥96.0% (calc. on dry substance, T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, contains hypophosphorous as stabilizer, loose crystals, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, unstabilized, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Supelco
Phenol solution, 5000 μg/mL in methanol, certified reference material
Supelco
Phenol solution, certified reference material, 500 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Phenol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, for molecular biology
Supelco
Phenol solution, 100 μg/mL in acetonitrile, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, unstabilized, purified by redistillation, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Liquified Phenol, ≥89.0%