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  • Tying the knot: the cystine signature and molecular-recognition processes of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of angiogenic cytokines.

Tying the knot: the cystine signature and molecular-recognition processes of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of angiogenic cytokines.

The FEBS journal (2011-09-16)
Shalini Iyer, K Ravi Acharya
RESUMEN

The cystine-knot motif, made up of three intertwined disulfide bridges, is a unique feature of several toxins, cyclotides and growth factors, and occurs in a variety of species, including fungi, insects, molluscs and mammals. Growth factor molecules containing the cystine-knot motif serve as ligands for a diverse range of receptors and play an important role in extracellular signalling. This superfamily of polypeptides comprises several homodimeric and heterodimeric molecules that are central characters in both health and disease. Amongst these molecules are a group of proteins that belong to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) subfamily. The members of this family are known angiogenic factors that regulate processes leading to blood vessel formation in physiological and pathological conditions. The focus of the present review is on the structural characteristics of proteins that belong to the VEGF family and on signal-transduction pathways that become initiated via the VEGF receptors.

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Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cystine, ≥98% (TLC), crystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cystine, from non-animal source, meets EP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cystine, ≥99.7% (TLC)
SAFC
L-Cystine
SAFC
L-Cystine
Supelco
L-Cystine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
L-Cystine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Cystine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cystine, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, ≥98.5%