Ferroptosis is a newly characterized iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic regulated cell death triggered by lipid reactive oxygen species (LOOH). The dysregulation of ferroptosis is highly related to cancer, and the induction of ferroptosis is also proposed as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Although several key regulators have been identified that are involved in ferroptosis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) is a bona fide negative regulator of ferroptotic cell death. The knockdown of intracellular PRDX6 significantly enhances LOOH and ferroptotic cell death triggered by ferroptosis inducers (Erastin and RSL-3), which is correlated with the transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase-1. Moreover, overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 enhances both Erastin- and RSL-3-triggered LOOH, suggesting that heme oxygenase-1 mediates PRDX6 silencing-enhanced ferroptosis. More importantly, the application of a specific PRDX6 phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, MJ-33, synergistically enhances the ferroptosis induced by Erastin, suggesting that PRDX6 removes LOOH through its iPLA2 activity. Thus, our findings reveal an essential role of PRDX6 in protecting cells against ferroptosis and provide a potential target to improve the antitumor activity of ferroptosis-based chemotherapy.