Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Identification and characterization of human xylosyltransferase II promoter single nucleotide variants.

PMID 25704086


The human isoenzymes xylosyltransferase-I and -II (XT-I, XT-II) catalyze the rate-limiting step in proteoglycan biosynthesis. Therefore, serum XT activity, mainly representing XT-II activity, displays a powerful biomarker to quantify the actual proteoglycan synthesis rate. Serum XT activity is increased up to 44% in disorders which are characterized by an altered proteoglycan metabolism, whereby underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate new regulatory pathways by identifying and characterizing naturally occurring XYLT2 promoter sequence variants as well as their potential influence on promoter activity and serum XT activity. XYLT2 promoter single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified and genotyped in the genomic DNA of 100 healthy blood donors by promoter amplification and sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The SNVs were characterized by an in silico analysis considering genetic linkage and transcription factor binding sites (TBSs). The influence of SNVs on promoter activity and serum XT activity was determined by dual luciferase reporter assay and HPLC-ESI mass spectrometry. Allele frequencies of seven XYLT2 promoter sequence variants identified were investigated. In silico analyses revealed a strong genetic linkage of SNVs c.-80delG and c.-188Gxa0>xa0A, c.-80delG and c.-1443Gxa0>xa0A, as well as c.-188Gxa0>xa0A and c.-1443Gxa0>xa0A. However, despite the generation of several SNV-associated changes in TBSs in silico, XYLT2 promoter SNVs did not significantly affect promoter activity. Serum XT activities of SNV carriers deviated up to 8% from the wild-type, whereby the differences were also not statistically significant. This is the first study which identifies, genotypes and characterizes XYLT2 promoter SNVs. Our results reveal a weak genetic heterogeneity and a strong conservation of the human XYLT2 promoter region. Since the SNVs detected could be excluded as causatives for strong interindividual variabilities in serum XT activity, our data provide increasing evidence that XT-II activity is obviously regulated by hitherto unknown complex genetic pathways, such as cis- or trans-acting enhancers, silencers or miRNAs.