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Journal of medical virology

Dengue virus and malaria concurrent infection among febrile subjects within Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.


PMID 28198544

Abstract

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of public health importance. It is caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus (i.e, DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). As a result of practices that are conducive for mosquito breading, its vector is widespread in Nigeria and this could result to possible DENV outbreaks in Nigeria and beyond. This study aimed to assess the recency of DENV infection as well as occurrence of DENV and Malaria co-infections within Ilorin, Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained from 176 febrile subjects and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the presence of DENV antibodies. Malaria infection was detected using a rapid diagnostic test kit for malaria parasites. Malaria and DENV (IgM positive) co-infected samples were further subjected to RT-qPCR analysis. A seroprevalence of 46.0% was recorded for anti-DENV IgM antibodies and 2.84% for concurrent Dengue and malaria infections. Out of 95 IgM negative samples, 48 were found to be positive for DENV IgG antibodies. Eleven (6.25%) samples were confirmed DENV positive following RT-qPCR. The CT values of the amplicons were between 19.0 and 20.0. DENV serotype 2 dominated the study, while serotype 3 and 4 were equally distributed. Based on the high seroprevalence of DENV obtained in this study, there is a high possibility of experiencing Dengue virus outbreak in Ilorin, Nigeria, not neglecting the fast geographical spread of the vector. Therefore, surveillance and intensive vector control program should be instituted.

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