The applicability of advanced composite materials with hierarchical structure that conjugate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with macroporous materials is commonly limited by their inferior mechanical properties. Here, a universal green synthesis method for the in situ growth of MOF nanocrystals within wood substrates is introduced. Nucleation sites for different types of MOFs are readily created by a sodium hydroxide treatment, which is demonstrated to be broadly applicable to different wood species. The resulting MOF/wood composite exhibits hierarchical porosity with 130 times larger specific surface area compared to native wood. Assessment of the CO2 adsorption capacity demonstrates the efficient utilization of the MOF loading along with similar adsorption ability to that of pure MOF. Compression and tensile tests reveal superior mechanical properties, which surpass those obtained for polymer substrates. The functionalization strategy offers a stable, sustainable, and scalable platform for the fabrication of multifunctional MOF/wood-derived composites with potential applications in environmental- and energy-related fields.
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