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Unique ligand selectivity of the GPR92/LPA5 lysophosphatidate receptor indicates role in human platelet activation.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2009-04-16)
Jesica R Williams, Anna L Khandoga, Pankaj Goyal, James I Fells, Donna H Perygin, Wolfgang Siess, Abby L Parrill, Gabor Tigyi, Yuko Fujiwara
ABSTRACT

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a ligand for LPA(1-3) of the endothelial differentiation gene family G-protein-coupled receptors, and LPA(4-8) is related to the purinergic family G-protein-coupled receptor. Because the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of GPR92/LPA(5) is limited and whether LPA is its preferred endogenous ligand has been questioned in the literature, in this study we applied a combination of computational and experimental site-directed mutagenesis of LPA(5) residues predicted to interact with the headgroup of LPA. Four residues involved in ligand recognition in LPA(5) were identified as follows: R2.60N mutant abolished receptor activation, whereas H4.64E, R6.62A, and R7.32A greatly reduced receptor activation. We also investigated the SAR of LPA(5) using LPA analogs and other non-lysophospholipid ligands. SAR revealed that the rank order of agonists is alkyl glycerol phosphate > LPA > farnesyl phosphates > N-arachidonoylglycine. These results confirm LPA(5) to be a bona fide lysophospholipid receptor. We also evaluated several compounds with previously established selectivity for the endothelial differentiation gene receptors and found several that are LPA(5) agonists. A pharmacophore model of LPA(5) binding requirements was developed for in silico screening, which identified two non-lipid LPA(5) antagonists. Because LPA(5) transcripts are abundant in human platelets, we tested its antagonists on platelet activation and found that these non-lipid LPA(5) antagonists inhibit platelet activation. The present results suggest that selective inhibition of LPA(5) may provide a basis for future anti-thrombotic therapies.