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  • Gemini Amphiphile-Based Lipoplexes for Efficient Gene Delivery: Synthesis, Formulation Development, Characterization, Gene Transfection, and Biodistribution Studies.

Gemini Amphiphile-Based Lipoplexes for Efficient Gene Delivery: Synthesis, Formulation Development, Characterization, Gene Transfection, and Biodistribution Studies.

ACS omega (2018-10-16)
Mange R Yadav, Mukesh Kumar, Prashant R Murumkar, Puja P Hazari, Anil K Mishra
ABSTRACT

Some quaternary gemini amphiphiles (GAs) were synthesized as nonviral gene delivery carriers. The critical miceller concentration values of these amphiphiles are indicative of their superior surface-active properties. All of the synthesized GAs, alone or along with lipids like cholesterol and/or dioleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE), were formulated as liposomes. Formulations of GAs with DOPE showed average particle diameters of 326-400 nm with positive ζ-potential (30.1-46.4 mV). The lipoplexes of theses formulations showed complete pDNA retention at the base at a N/P ratio higher than 1.0 in gel retardation study. The GAs were effective in condensing pDNA into a ψ-phase, as indicated by circular dichroism study, and provided complete protection of the pDNA against the enzyme DNase at a N/P ratio more than 1. In vitro cell line studies showed that GA liposomal formulations caused β-gal expression and offered a higher transfection efficiency than that of liposomes prepared with the help of N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methyl-sulfate (DOTAP)/DOPE and dicyclocarbodiimide (DCC)/DOPE but comparable to those of Lipofectamine 2000 in A549 and HeLa cell lines. Modulation of head group polarity significantly affected the transfection efficacy of GAs. The cell viabilities of almost all of the formulations were comparable to those of the standards (DCC/DOPE and DOTAP/DOPE liposomes). Incorporation of cholesterol [GA/DOPE/cholesterol in the ratio of 1:1:1] further improved the serum compatibility of the formulations and improved the transfection efficacy when evaluated in A549 and HeLa cell lines. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting studies showed comparable number of transfected cells to Lipofectamine 2000 in the HeLa cell line. Intracellular trafficking studies using confocal microscopy indicated transfection of the HeLa cells with the reporter gene within 30 min of lipoplex treatment. γ-Scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled lipoplexes showed higher concentrations of the lipoplexes in vital tissues like liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys.

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Sigma-Aldrich
1,4-Dibromobutane, 99%