Food and dietary ingredients have significant effects on metabolism and health. To evaluate whether and how different diets affected the serum lipidomic profile of dogs. Sixteen healthy beagles were fed a commercial dry diet for 3 months (control diet). After an overnight fasting period, a blood sample was taken for serum lipidomic profile analysis, and each dog was then randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 was fed a commercial diet (Diet 1) and group 2 was fed a self-made, balanced diet supplemented with linseed oil and salmon oil (Diet 2) for 3 months. After an overnight fasting period, a blood sample was taken from each dog. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol analyses were performed and the serum lipidomic profiles were analyzed using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dogs fed the supplemented self-made diet (Diet 2) had significantly higher omega-3 fatty acid-containing lipids species and significantly lower saturated and mono- and di-unsaturated lipid species. Concentrations of sphingosine 1-phosphate species S1P d16:1 and S1P d17:1 were significantly increased after feeding Diet 2. This study found that different diets had significant effects on the dog's serum lipidomic profile. Therefore, in studies that include lipidomic analyses, diet should be included as a confounding factor.