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Relative Ratios Enhance the Diagnostic Power of Phospholipids in Distinguishing Benign and Cancerous Ovarian Masses.

Cancers (2020-01-01)
Tsukasa Yagi, Cyrus E Kuschner, Muhammad Shoaib, Rishabh C Choudhary, Lance B Becker, Annette T Lee, Junhwan Kim
ABSTRACT

Ovarian cancer remains a highly lethal disease due to its late clinical presentation and lack of reliable early biomarkers. Protein-based diagnostic markers have presented limitations in identifying ovarian cancer. We tested the potential of phospholipids as markers of ovarian cancer by utilizing inter-related regulation of phospholipids, a unique property that allows the use of ratios between phospholipid species for quantitation. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure phospholipid, lysophospholipid, and sphingophospholipid content in plasma from patients with benign ovarian masses, patients with ovarian cancer, and controls. We applied both absolute and relative phospholipid ratios for quantitation. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to test the sensitivity and specificity. We found that utilization of ratios between phospholipid species greatly outperformed absolute quantitation in the identification of ovarian cancer. Of the phospholipids analyzed, species in phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and sphingomyelin (SM) were found to have great biomarker potential. LPC(20:4)/LPC(18:0) carried the greatest capacity to differentiate cancer from control, SM(d18:1/24:1)/SM(d18:1/22:0) to differentiate benign from cancer, and PC(18:0/20:4)/PC(18:0/18:1) to differentiate benign from control. These results demonstrate the potential of plasma phospholipids as a novel marker of ovarian cancer by utilizing the unique characteristics of phospholipids to further enhance the diagnostic power.