Bromodomain containing (BRD) proteins play an essential role in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to estimate activity of bromodomains during alga Chara vulgaris spermatids differentiation. The effect of a bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1 (100 µM), on the distribution of individual stages of spermatids and their ultrastructure was studied. The material was Feulgen stained and analysed in an electron microscope. JQ1 caused shortening of the early stages of spermiogenesis and a reverse reaction at the later stages. Additionally, in the same antheridium, spermatids at distant developmental stages were present. On the ultrastructural level, chromatin fibril system disorders and significantly distended endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae already at the early stages were observed. Many autolytic vacuoles were also visible. The ultrastructural disturbances intensified after prolonged treatment with JQ1. The obtained data show that JQ1 treatment led to changes in the spermatid number and disturbances in chromatin condensation and to cytoplasm reduction. The current studies show some similarities between C. vulgaris and mammals spermiogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that JQ1 interferes with the spermatid differentiation on many interdependent levels and seems to induce ER stress, which leads to spermatid degeneration. Studies on the role of bromodomains in algae spermiogenesis have not been conducted so far.