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pH-responsive polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte complexes as nanocarriers for lysosomal delivery of therapeutic proteins.

Biomacromolecules (2011-05-25)
Marina I Giannotti, Olga Esteban, Mireia Oliva, María F García-Parajo, Fausto Sanz
ABSTRACT

Nanopharmaceutics composed of a carrier and a protein have the potential to improve the activity of therapeutical proteins. Therapy for lysosomal diseases is limited by the lack of effective protein delivery systems that allow the controlled release of specific proteins to the lysosomes. Here we address this problem by developing functional polyelectrolyte-based nanoparticles able to promote acidic pH-triggered release of the loaded protein. Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was synthesized and allowed to form polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with the lysosomal enzyme α-GAL through self-assembly and ionotropic gelation, with average particle size <200 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) <0.2, ζ potential of ∼ 20 mV, and a protein loading efficiency close to 65%. These polyelectrolyte nanoparticles were stable and active under physiological conditions and able to release the enzyme at acidic pH, as demonstrated by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). These nanoparticles were further functionalized with Atto 647N for single-particle characterization and tracking their cellular uptake and fate using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. In contrast with their precursor, TMC, PECs were efficiently internalized by human endothelial cells and mostly accumulated in lysosomal compartments. The superior physicochemical characteristics of the TMC/α-GAL PECs together with their excellent cellular uptake properties indicate their enormous potential as advanced protein delivery systems for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Atto 647N NHS ester, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC)
Supelco
Atto 647N, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥98.0% (HPCE)
Supelco
Atto 647N maleimide, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Atto 647N-Biotin, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Atto 647N amine
Sigma-Aldrich
Atto 647N azide