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  • Tolerance and biodegradation of m-toluate by Scots pine, a mycorrhizal fungus and fluorescent pseudomonads individually and under associative conditions.

Tolerance and biodegradation of m-toluate by Scots pine, a mycorrhizal fungus and fluorescent pseudomonads individually and under associative conditions.

Journal of applied microbiology (1999-05-29)
I Sarand, S Timonen, T Koivula, R Peltola, K Haahtela, R Sen, M Romantschuk
ABSTRACT

The tolerance to, and degradation of m-toluate by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), a symbiotic mycorrhizal fungus (Suillus bovinus) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, with or without m-toluate-degrading capacity, was determined individually and in all symbiotic/associative plant-microbe combinations. Fungal survival on medium with m-toluate was increased in co-culture with the degradative bacterial strains on agar plates (up to 0.02%, w/v). When fungi were grown in mycorrhizal association with Scots pine seedlings in test-tube microcosms containing expanded clay pellets and growth media, the fungus was able to withstand m-toluate concentrations up to 2.0%, w/v in all treatments. The seedling tolerance remained unaltered regardless of the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi or biodegradative bacteria. Reduction in m-toluate levels was only detected in treatments inoculated with bacterial strains harbouring TOL catabolic plasmids. The plant and fungus, alone or in mycorrhizal symbiosis, were unable to cleave m-toluate. The presence of easily available plant-derived carbon sources did not impede m-toluate degradation by the bacteria in the mycorrhizosphere.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
m-Toluic acid, ReagentPlus®, 99%