6-Phosphofructo-1-kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase are rate-limiting enzymes for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis respectively, in the fructose 6-phosphate/fructose 1,6-bisphosphate cycle in the liver. The effect of ribose 1,5-bisphosphate on the enzymes was investigated. Ribose 1,5-bisphosphate synergistically relieved the ATP inhibition and increased the affinity of liver 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase for fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of AMP. Ribose 1,5-bisphosphate synergistically inhibited fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the presence of AMP. The activating effect on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and the inhibitory effect on fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase suggest ribose 1,5-bisphosphate is a potent regulator of the fructose 6-phosphate/fructose 1,6-bisphosphate cycle in the liver.