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Application of time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry for the online measurement of gaseous molecular iodine.

Analytical chemistry (2012-01-17)
Michael Kundel, Ru-Jin Huang, Ute R Thorenz, Janine Bosle, Moritz J D Mann, Marco Ries, Thorsten Hoffmann
ABSTRACT

Here we present a new application of a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (TOF-AMS) for the measurement of atmospheric trace gases in real-time. Usually, TOF-AMS instruments are not sensitive to gas-phase species due to the aerodynamic particle focusing inlet system which reduces the gas phase species by a factor of about 10(7) relative to the particle phase. This efficient removal of the gas phase and the resulting high relative enrichment of particles is one reason for the very high sensitivity of TOF-AMS instruments for particle phase compounds (detection limits in the sub-μg/m(3)-range for online measurements with 1 min integration time), which allows application of the instruments even under clean atmospheric conditions. Here we use artificially generated particles as sampling probes to transfer selected atmospheric trace gases into the particle phase before entering the AMS (gaseous compound trapping in artificially generated particles-AMS, GTRAP-AMS). The sampling probe particles are mixed with the gaseous analytes upstream of the TOF-AMS in a 0.5 L flow tube. As an exemplary application of the method, the measurement of trace levels of gaseous molecular iodine is demonstrated. α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD/NH(4)Br) particles are used as selective sampling probes to transfer molecular iodine into the AMS. A detection limit in the subparts-per-billion (sub-ppb) range was achieved. The method was compared to a recently developed off-line method that combines denuder sampling of gaseous I(2) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. To demonstrate the usability of the method, temporally resolved I(2) emission profiles from a brown algae species (Laminaria saccharina) under exposure of ambient ozone levels were investigated. Total I(2) release rates of 36.5 pmol min(-1) grams fresh weight (gFW)(-1) at 100 pbb O(3) and 33.4 pmol min(-1) gFW(-1) at 50 ppb O(3) were obtained within the first hour of ozone exposure.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
α-Cyclodextrin, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
α-Cyclodextrin, Produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, Life Science, 98.0-101.0% cyclodextrin basis (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
α-Cyclodextrin, purum, ≥98.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
α-Cyclodextrin, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
α-Cyclodextrin, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98%