MilliporeSigma
  • Dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the buildup region for a high-energy photon beam.

Dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the buildup region for a high-energy photon beam.

Medical physics (2002-12-05)
George X Ding
ABSTRACT

This study investigates a possible cause of reported significant dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the buildup region for high-energy photon beams in large fields. A proposed hypothesis was that the discrepancy was caused by a source of electrons in the accelerator head that was not fully accounted for in the treatment head simulation. In this investigation, a lead foil is added just below the accelerator head in order to study this hypothesis. The lead foil effectively removes charged particles generated inside the accelerator head. The charged particles generated by the lead foil can be accounted for fully because the simple geometry can be simulated accurately. An 18 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac-2100EX is measured using a WELLHOFER WP700 beam scanner with an IC-10 ionization chamber (cavity radius=3 mm). The BEAM Monte Carlo code is used in the incident beam simulations. Both EGS4/DOSXYZ and EGSnrc/DOSRZnrc are used in the dose calculations in a water phantom. The Monte Carlo calculated depth-dose curve is scaled so that it has the same values at 10 cm depth as the measured curve. It is found that the discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements remain significant in the buildup region even after applying necessary corrections to the measured data. The discrepancies have only been modestly decreased with the lead foil in place compared to the 40 x 40 cm2 open field. At a depth of 1 cm, discrepancies of about 5% are still observed in the buildup region for the field with the lead foil. Therefore a new explanation for the unresolved discrepancy remains to be found.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Lead, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.005mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.02mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.009mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 250x300mm, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 97% (Sn 1.5%, Sb 1.5%)
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.025mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.04mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.009mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.015mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.025mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.005mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.008mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.016mm, as rolled, 96% (Sn 1.5%, Sb 2.5%)
Lead, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.02mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.006mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.02mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.016mm, as rolled, 96% (Sn 1.5%, Sb 2.5%)
Lead, foil, light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.03mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.02mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.007mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.008mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.004mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 300x300mm, thickness 0.016mm, as rolled, 96% (Sn 1.5%, Sb 2.5%)
Lead, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.04mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.008mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, 99.99+%