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Occurrence of polyamines in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici in response to salt stress.

Phytochemistry (2014-09-16)
Miguel López-Gómez, Libertad Cobos-Porras, Javier Hidalgo-Castellanos, Carmen Lluch
ABSTRACT

Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds that have been shown to be an important part of plant responses to salt stress. For that reason in this work we have investigated the involvement of PAs in the response to salt stress in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici. The level and variety of PAs was higher in nodules, compared to leaves and roots, and in addition to the common PAs (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) we found homospermidine (Homspd) as the most abundant polyamine in nodules. UPLC-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 4-aminobutylcadaverine (4-ABcad), only described in nodules of Vigna angularis before. Indeed, the analysis of different nodular fractions revealed higher level of 4-ABcad, as well as Homspd, in bacteroids which indicate the production of these PAs by the bacteria in symbiosis. The genes involved in PAs biosynthesis in nodules displayed an induction under salt stress conditions which was not consistent with the decline of free PAs levels, probably due to the nitrogen limitations provoked by the nitrogenase activity depletion and/or the conversion of free PAs to theirs soluble conjugated forms, that seems to be one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PAs levels. On the contrary, cadaverine (Cad) and 4-ABcad concentrations augmented by the salinity, which might be due to their involvement in the response of bacteroids to hyper-osmotic conditions. In conclusion, the results shown in this work suggest the alteration of the bacteroidal metabolism towards the production of uncommon PAs such as 4-ABcad in the response to salt stress in legume root nodules.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dansyl chloride, BioReagent, suitable for amino acid labeling, powder and chunks, ≥99% (HPLC)
Supelco
Dansyl chloride, for HPLC derivatization, LiChropur, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dansyl chloride, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
1,7-Diaminoheptane, 98%