Dyslexia is the most common childhood learning disorder and it is a significantly heritable trait. At least nine chromosomal loci have been linked to dyslexia, and additional susceptibility loci on other chromosomes have been suggested. Within two of these loci, DYX1C1 (15q21) and ROBO1 (3p12) have recently been proposed as dyslexia candidate genes through the molecular analysis of translocation breakpoints in dyslexic individuals carrying balanced chromosomal translocations. Moreover, genetic association studies have indicated a cluster of five dyslexia candidate genes in another linkage region on chromosome 6p22, although there is currently no consensus about which of these five genes contributes to the genetic susceptibility for dyslexia. In this article, we report the identification of four new dyslexia candidate genes (PCNT, DIP2A, S100B, and PRMT2) on chromosome region 21q22.3 by FISH and SNP microarray analyses of a very small deletion in this region, which cosegregates with dyslexia in a father and his three sons.
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