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A systematic study of modulation of ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding by site-specific O-glycosylation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015-11-11)
Christoffer K Goth, Adnan Halim, Sumeet A Khetarpal, Daniel J Rader, Henrik Clausen, Katrine T-B G Schjoldager
ABSTRACT

Regulated shedding of the ectodomain of cell membrane proteins by proteases is a common process that releases the extracellular domain from the cell and activates cell signaling. Ectodomain shedding occurs in the immediate extracellular juxtamembrane region, which is also where O-glycosylation is often found and examples of crosstalk between shedding and O-glycosylation have been reported. Here, we systematically investigated the potential of site-specific O-glycosylation mediated by distinct polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (GalNAc-T) isoforms to coregulate ectodomain shedding mediated by the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) subfamily of proteases and in particular ADAM17. We analyzed 25 membrane proteins that are known to undergo ADAM17 shedding and where the processing sites included Ser/Thr residues within ± 4 residues that could represent O-glycosites. We used in vitro GalNAc-T enzyme and ADAM cleavage assays to demonstrate that shedding of at least 12 of these proteins are potentially coregulated by O-glycosylation. Using TNF-α as an example, we confirmed that shedding mediated by ADAM17 is coregulated by O-glycosylation controlled by the GalNAc-T2 isoform both ex vivo in isogenic cell models and in vivo in mouse Galnt2 knockouts. The study provides compelling evidence for a wider role of site-specific O-glycosylation in ectodomain shedding.

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Mouse IL-6 R ELISA Kit, for serum, plasma and cell culture supernatant