We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (λmax 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) θ to cos(2) θ photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra.
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