Phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) hydrolyzes PC to generate the second messenger 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphocholine. PC-PLC plays pivotal roles in inflammation, carcinogenesis, tumor progression, atherogenesis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the activity of PC-PLC in mammalian tissues was discovered approximately 40 years ago, neither the protein nor its gene has been identified. In the present study, we developed a non-radioactive enzyme activity assay for PC-PLC based on mass spectrometric detection of DG following HPLC separation. This new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assay directly determines a specific reaction product, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-DG, that is generated from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC by purified Bacillus cereus PC-PLC. The LC-MS assay offers several advantages including a lower background (0.02% versus 91%), higher signal background ratio (4242 versus 1.06)/signal noise ratio (7494 versus 4.4), higher sensitivity (≥32-fold), and lower limit of quantitation (0.04 pmol versus 0.69 pmol of PC-PLC), than a conventional fluorometric assay, which indirectly detects phosphocholine produced in the reaction. In addition to Bacillus cereus PC-PLC, the LC-MS assay was applicable to the measurement of mammalian PC-PLC prepared from the mouse brain. The radioisotope-free, highly sensitive and precise LC-MS assay for PC-PLC would be useful for the purification and identification of PC-PLC protein.