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Synthesis of irregular graphene oxide tubes using green chemistry and their potential use as reinforcement materials for biomedical applications.

PloS one (2017-09-22)
Ángel Serrano-Aroca, Sanjukta Deb
ABSTRACT

Micrometer length tubes of graphene oxide (GO) with irregular form were synthesised following facile and green metal complexation reactions. These materials were obtained by crosslinking of GO with calcium, zinc or strontium chlorides at three different temperatures (24, 34 and 55°C) using distilled water as solvent for the compounds and following a remarkably simple and low-cost synthetic method, which employs no hazardous substances and is conducted without consumption of thermal or sonic energy. These irregular continuous GO networks showed a very particular interconnected structure by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Disperse X-Ray Spectroscopy for elemental analysis and High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Dark Field Imaging, and were analysed by Raman Spectroscopy. To demonstrate the potential use of these 3D GO networks as reinforcement materials for biomedical applications, two composites of calcium alginate with irregular tubes of GO and with single GO nanosheets were prepared with the same amount of GO and divalent atoms and analysed. Thus, the dynamic-mechanical modulus of the composites synthesised with the 3D crosslinked GO networks showed a very significant mechanical improvement due to marked microstructural changes confirmed by confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium chloride, anhydrous, granular, ≤7.0 mm, ≥93.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcium chloride, anhydrous, granular, ≤7.0 mm, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ReagentPlus®, ≥93%