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MMP-9 expression is associated with leukocytic but not endothelial markers in brain arteriovenous malformations.

Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library (2006-05-25)
Yongmei Chen, Yongfeng Fan, K Y Trudy Poon, Achal S Achrol, Michael T Lawton, Yiqian Zhu, Charles E McCulloch, Tomoki Hashimoto, Chanhung Lee, Nicholas M Barbaro, Andrew W Bollen, Guo-Yuan Yang, William L Young
ABSTRACT

Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) have high matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, the source of which is unclear. We hypothesized MMP-9 production might be due to inflammation in BAVM. Compared to control brain tissues (n = 5), BAVM tissue (n = 139) had a higher expression (by ELISA) of myeloperoxidase (MPO) (193 +/- 189 vs. 6 +/- 3, ng/mg, P < .001), MMP-9 (28 +/- 32 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.6, ng/mg, P < .001), and IL-6 (102 +/- 218 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.1, pg/mg, P < .001), but not eNOS (114 +/- 87 vs. 65 +/- 9, pg/mg, P = .09). MMP-9 expression in BAVM highly correlated with myeloperoxidase (R2 = .76, P < .001), as well as with IL-6 (R2 = .32, P < .001). In contrast, MMP-9 in BAVM poorly correlated with the endothelial marker, eNOS (R2 = .03, P = .05), and CD31 (R2 = .004, P = .57). Compared to non-embolized patients (n = 46), patients with pre-operative embolization (n = 93) had higher levels of myeloperoxidase (236 +/- 205 vs. 106 +/- 108, ng/mg, P < .001) and MMP-9 (33 +/- 35 vs. 16 +/- 20, ng/mg, P < .001), however the correlation between MMP-9 and myeloperoxidase was equally strong for both groups (R2 = .69, n = 93, P < .001, for both). MMP-9 expression correlated with the lipocalin-MMP-9 complex, suggesting neutrophils as the MMP-9 source. MPO co-localized with majority of MMP-9 signal by immunohistochemistry. Our data suggest that inflammation is a prominent feature of BAVM lesional phenotype, and neutrophils appear to be a major source of MMP-9 in these lesions.

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