Merck

Antiviral oxysterols are present in human milk at diverse stages of lactation.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology (2019-07-16)
Andrea Civra, Valerio Leoni, Claudio Caccia, Stefano Sottemano, Paola Tonetto, Alessandra Coscia, Chiara Peila, Guido E Moro, Pietro Gaglioti, Enrico Bertino, Giuseppe Poli, David Lembo
RESUMEN

Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation derivatives. Those containing an additional hydroxyl group on the side chain of the cholesterol molecule result from a physiological enzymatic synthesis and include the majority of oxysterols present in the circulation. Among these, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) are characterized by a broad antiviral activity and are now considered involved in the innate immune response against viruses. Despite the emerging role of these sterols in the innate antiviral defences, no data are available on their presence in human breast milk (BM) to date. In this study, we investigated the content of oxysterols of enzymatic synthesis in BM of twelve donor mothers at different stages of lactation (i.e. in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The side-chain oxysterols 25OHC, 27OHC, and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24SOHC) were actually present in BM in all stages of lactation, but the concentration of 27OHC showed a remarkable peak in colostrum. Antiviral assays revealed that all the colostrum samples contained 27OHC concentrations that were active in vitro against two relevant pediatric viral pathogens: the human rotavirus and the human rhinovirus. Overall, this study discloses new antiviral components of BM and suggests a passive transfer of these protective factors to the infant via breastfeeding, especially in the first few days of lactation.

MATERIALES
Referencia del producto
Marca
Descripción del producto

Sigma-Aldrich
Colesterol, Sigma Grade, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Desmosterol, ≥84% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Lanosterol, ≥93%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
5-Cholesten-3β-ol-7-one, ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich
5β-Cholestan-3α-ol, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
5α-Cholest-7-en-3β-ol
Sigma-Aldrich
7β-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥95%
Avanti
lathosterol-d7, Avanti Polar Lipids
Avanti
24(R/S)-hydroxycholesterol-d7, Avanti Polar Lipids
Avanti
27-hydroxycholesterol-d6, Avanti Polar Lipids