Merck

Understanding the human salivary metabolome.

NMR in biomedicine (2009-03-05)
Ienaka Takeda, Cynthia Stretch, Pamela Barnaby, Kriti Bhatnager, Kathryn Rankin, Hao Fu, Aalim Weljie, Naresh Jha, Carolyn Slupsky
ABSTRACT

Saliva is a readily accessible biofluid that is important for the overall health, aiding in the chewing, swallowing, and tasting of food as well as the regulation mouth flora. As a first step to determining and understanding the human saliva metabolome, we have measured salivary metabolite concentrations under a variety of conditions in a healthy population with reasonably good oral hygiene. Using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, metabolite concentrations were measured in resting (basal) and stimulated saliva from the same subject and compared in a cohort of healthy male non-smoking subjects (n = 62). Almost all metabolites were higher in the unstimulated saliva when compared to the stimulated saliva. Comparison of the salivary metabolite profile of male smokers and non-smokers (n = 46) revealed citrate, lactate, pyruvate, and sucrose to be higher and formate to be lower in concentration in smokers compared with non-smokers (p < 0.05). Gender differences were also investigated (n = 40), and acetate, formate, glycine, lactate, methanol, propionate, propylene glycol, pyruvate, succinate, and taurine were significantly higher in concentration in male saliva compared to female saliva (p < 0.05). These results show that differences between male and female, stimulated and unstimulated, as well as smoking status may be observed in the salivary metabolome.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Formic acid, reagent grade, ≥95%
Supelco
Citric acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
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Succinic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
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Sucrose, Grade I, suitable for plant cell culture
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Succinic acid, ReagentPlus®, BioRenewable, ≥99.0%
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Succinic acid, BioXtra, BioRenewable, ≥99.0%
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Succinic acid, BioReagent, BioRenewable, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
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Propionic acid, BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, ~99%
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Sucrose, analytical standard, for enzymatic assay kit SCA20
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Sucrose, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
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Sucrose, ACS reagent
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Sucrose, ≥99.5% (GC)
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L-Phenylalanine, analytical standard, for Nitrogen Determination According to Kjeldahl Method
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Bifido Selective Supplement B, suitable for microbiology
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Taurine, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (T)
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Dimethylamine solution, 40 wt. % in H2O
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L-Phenylalanine, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
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Urea, ACS reagent, 99.0-100.5%
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Citric acid, 99%
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Urea, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5%, pellets
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Citric acid, anhydrous, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture
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Urea, meets USP testing specifications
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Sucrose, Grade II, suitable for plant cell culture
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Urea, powder, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture
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Urea, suitable for electrophoresis
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Taurine, suitable for cell culture, meets USP testing specifications
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Taurine, ≥99%
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L-Alanine-12C3, 99.9 atom % 12C
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Pyruvic acid, natural, ≥95%, FG