Perfluorobutyrate (PFBA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) found in the environment. Previous studies have indicated developmental toxicity of PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS] and perfluorooctanoate [PFOA]); the current study examines that of PFBA. PFBA/NH4(+) was given to timed-pregnant CD-1 mice by oral gavage daily from gestational day (GD) 1 to 17 at 35, 175, or 350 mg/kg (chosen to approximate the developmentally toxic doses of PFOA); controls received water. At GD 18, serum levels of PFBA were 3.8, 4.4, and 2.5 microg/ml, respectively, in the three treated groups. PFBA did not significantly affect maternal weight gain, number of implantations, fetal viability, fetus weight, or incidence of fetal malformations. Incidence of full-litter loss was significantly greater in the 350 mg/kg group, and maternal liver weights were significantly increased in the 175 and 350 mg/kg groups. In contrast to PFOA and PFOS, PFBA exposure during pregnancy did not adversely affect neonatal survival or postnatal growth. Liver enlargement was detected in the PFBA-exposed pups on postnatal day (PD) 1, but not by PD 10. Expression of selected hepatic genes in PFBA-exposed pups at PD 1 did not reveal any significant changes from controls. A significant delay in eye-opening in offspring was detected in all three PFBA groups, and slight delays in the onset of puberty were noted in the 175 and 350 mg/kg groups. These data suggest that exposure to PFBA during pregnancy in the mouse did not produce developmental toxicity comparable to that observed with PFOA, in part, due to rapid elimination of the chemical.