Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exists as multiple isomers (e.g., 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) in foods such as coffee beverages, fruits and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate relative activities of these six different CGA isomers to modify redox biology in inflamed Caco-2 cells that involved Nrf2 signaling. Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with individual CGA isomers to assess the relative effectiveness to mitigate oxidative stress. Isomer-specific capacity of different CGA isomers for direct free radical scavenging activity and potential endogenous control of oxidative stress were determined using chemical assays and cell-based experiments, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations of the CGA and Keap1-Nrf2 complex were performed to predict CGA structure-specific interactions. Results demonstrated that dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA including 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) isomers had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to ameliorate oxidative stress through direct free radical scavenging activity. This observation corresponded to greater (p < 0.05) capacity to activate Nrf2 signaling compared to caffeoylquinic acid (CQA including 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA) isomers in inflamed differentiated Caco-2 cells. Simulations revealed that differences between the ability of CQA and diCQA to interact with the Keap1-Nrf2 complex may be due to differences in relative orientation within this complex. The observed CGA isomer-specific affinity for CQA to activate Nrf2 signaling was confirmed by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by CGA and greater (p < 0.05) upregulation of genes related to Nrf2 expression.