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Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase-2 and -4, citrullinated proteins and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in human gingiva.

Journal of periodontal research (2012-09-18)
G P Harvey, T R Fitzsimmons, A A S S K Dhamarpatni, C Marchant, D R Haynes, P M Bartold
ABSTRACT

The presence of citrullinated proteins, and peptidylarginine deiminase types -2 (PAD-2) and -4 (PAD-4) in periodontal tissues, determine the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and compare the expression of these proteins between inflamed and non-inflamed sites. Tissue sections were stained using antibodies against citrullinated proteins, PAD-2 and PAD-4. RT-PCR was performed to investigate PAD-2 and PAD-4 mRNA in inflamed and non-inflamed gingival tissues. Anti-CCP antibodies in gingival crevicular fluid were detected by ELISA. Citrullinated proteins, PAD-2 and PAD-4 were detected in gingiva. There was a correlation between inflammation and expression of these proteins. mRNAs for PAD-2 and PAD-4 were detected in both inflamed and non-inflamed gingival tissues. Antibodies to CCP were found mostly in the GCF of individuals with periodontitis. PAD-2 and PAD-4 (protein and mRNA) as well as citrullinated proteins are present in inflamed gingiva, and anti-CCP antibodies can be detected in the GCF of some patients. Tissue expression of citrullinated proteins and PAD increased with the severity of inflammation. The presence of anti-CCP antibodies in GCF was almost exclusive to a subset of patients with periodontitis. Increased expression of these proteins in inflamed gingiva lends support to the notion that periodontal inflammation contributes to the inflammatory burden in a similar way to rheumatoid arthritis.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole, tablet
Sigma-Aldrich
3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole, ≥95% (HPLC), powder