TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated 6-carboxy β-chitin derivatives (T-chitin) with different carboxylate content were successfully synthesized by controlling the addition level of NaClO as the primary oxidant. The structural and biochemical properties of the derivatives were investigated. The carboxylate contents of the derivatives calculated by electrical conductivity titration were 1.33, 1.68, 1.80, and 2.08 mmol/g, respectively. The yield of T-chitin with carboxylate content of 2.08 mmol/g reached 74.55%. T-chitin exhibited stronger bile acid binding capacities than that of β-chitin. The scavenging ability of T-chitin against hydroxyl radicals improved with increasing concentration, and EC(50) values were below 1.2 mg/mL. All T-chitin exhibited a strong ferrous ion chelating effect. At 8 mg/mL, the chelating effects of T-chitin with carboxylate content of 0.81 mmol/g reached 80.15%. These results showed that T-chitin had good bile acid binding capacity and antioxidant activities and it may be a potential antioxidant in vitro.