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Silica-based nano-coating on zirconia surfaces using reactive magnetron sputtering: effect on chemical adhesion of resin cements.

The journal of adhesive dentistry (2013-03-28)
José Renato Queiroz, Marcos Massi, Lafayette Nogueira, Argemiro Soares Sobrinho, Marco Antonio Bottino, Mutlu Ozcan
ABSTRACT

To compare the effect of silica (Si)-based nano-coating deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMP) with that of conventional surface conditioning using metal/zirconia primer alone or after air-particle abrasion on the adhesion of resin cements to zirconia ceramic. Two hundred forty zirconia ceramic blocks (Cercon) were sintered, finished with 1200- grit SiC paper under water cooling, and cleaned ultrasonically in distilled water for 10 min. The blocks (4.5 mm x 3.5 mm x 4.5 mm) were randomly divided into 24 groups (n = 10) according to 3 testing parameters: a) resin cements (Multilink, Panavia F, RelyX U100), b) surface conditioning (no conditioning as control group; Metal/Zirconia Primer; air abrasion + Metal/Zirconia Primer; Si-based nanofilm + Monobond s); c) aging (no aging vs thermocycling at 5°C to 55°C, 6000 cycles). The nanofilm was deposited by direct current using argon/oxygen plasma (8:1 in flux) on the zirconia surface. Resin cements were bonded to zirconia surfaces using polyethylene molds. The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min), and after debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopes to categorize the failure types. The data were statistically evaluated using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Resin cement type (p < 0.05), surface conditioning method (p < 0.05), and aging condition (p < 0.05) had a significant effect on the bond strength results. Interactions were also significant (p < 0.05). In the nonaged condition, while control groups presented the lowest results with all cements (0 to 5.2 MPa), the airabraded group in combination with RelyX U100 resulted in the highest SBS (21.8 ± 6.7 MPa). After aging, the SBS results decreased in the air-abraded groups for all cements (4.54 to 9.44 MPa) and showed no statistical significance compared to the Si-based nanocoated groups (4.24 to 6.44 MPa). After air-abrasion and primer application, only Panavia F and RelyX U100 cements showed exclusively mixed failures, but after nanofilm coating and silanization, all cements showed exclusively mixed failures with and without aging. Chemical adhesion of the resin cements tested to zirconia was similar after silica-based nanofilm deposition and air abrasion followed by primer application.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Yttrium, chips, 99.9% trace rare earth metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Yttrium, ingot, 99.9% trace rare earth metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Yttrium, powder, −40 mesh, 99.5% trace rare earth metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Yttrium sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.9% trace metals basis