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Prostate-specific antigen at 4 to 5 years after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is a strong predictor of disease-free survival.

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics (2013-12-18)
Andrea C Lo, W James Morris, Vincent Lapointe, Jeremy Hamm, Mira Keyes, Tom Pickles, Michael McKenzie, Ingrid Spadinger
ABSTRACT

To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ≥72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA≤0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ≤0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ≤1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ∼5% of its total variance. The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA≤0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA>1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Testosterone, ≥98%
Supelco
Testosterone solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Testosterone, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Testosterone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard