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  • Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bisphenol A exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle assembly in vitro.

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bisphenol A exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle assembly in vitro.

Environmental and molecular mutagenesis (2014-01-25)
Teng Zhang, Lan Li, Xun-Si Qin, Yang Zhou, Xi-Feng Zhang, Lin-Qing Wang, Massimo De Felici, Hong Chen, Guo-Qing Qin, Wei Shen
ABSTRACT

Bisphenol-A (BPA) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are estrogenic compounds widely used in commercial plastic products. Previous studies have shown that exposure to such compounds have adverse effects on various aspects of mammalian reproduction including folliculogenesis. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of BPA and DEHP exposure on primordial follicle formation. We found that germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle assembly were significantly reduced when newborn mouse ovaries were exposed to 10 or 100 μM BPA and DEHP in vitro. Moreover, BPA and DEHP exposure increased the number of TUNEL positive oocytes and the mRNA level of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax in oocytes. These effects were associated with decreased expression of oocyte specific genes such as LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8), factor in the germline alpha (Figla), spermatogenesis and oogenesis helix-loop-helix (Sohlh2), and newborn ovary homeobox (Nobox). Interestingly, BPA and DEHP exposure also prevented DNA demethylation of CpG sites of the Lhx8 gene in oocytes, a process normally associated with folliculogenesis. Finally, folliculogenesis was severely impaired in BPA and DEHP exposed ovaries after transplantation into the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, BPA and DEHP exposures impair mouse primordial follicle assembly in vitro.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Selectophore
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Dioctyl phthalate, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, Manufactured by: Sigma-Aldrich Production GmbH, Switzerland
Plastic additive 01, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Bisphenol A, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, Manufactured by: Sigma-Aldrich Production GmbH, Switzerland
Sigma-Aldrich
Bisphenol A, 97%
Supelco
Bisphenol A, ≥99%