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Engineering rhizobial bioinoculants: a strategy to improve iron nutrition.

TheScientificWorldJournal (2013-12-10)
S J Geetha, Sanket J Joshi
ABSTRACT

Under field conditions, inoculated rhizobial strains are at a survival disadvantage as compared to indigenous strains. In order to out-compete native rhizobia it is not only important to develop strong nodulation efficiency but also increase their competence in the soil and rhizosphere. Competitive survival of the inoculated strain may be improved by employing strain selection and by genetic engineering of superior nitrogen fixing strains. Iron sufficiency is an important factor determining the survival and nodulation by rhizobia in soil. Siderophores, a class of ferric specific ligands that are involved in receptor specific iron transport into bacteria, constitute an important part of iron acquisition systems in rhizobia and have been shown to play a role in symbiosis as well as in saprophytic survival. Soils predominantly have iron bound to hydroxamate siderophores, a pool that is largely unavailable to catecholate-utilizing rhizobia. Outer membrane receptors for uptake of ferric hydroxamates include FhuA and FegA which are specific for ferrichrome siderophore. Increase in nodule occupancy and enhanced plant growth of the fegA and fhuA expressing engineered bioinoculants rhizobial strain have been reported. Engineering rhizobia for developing effective bioinoculants with improved ability to utilize heterologous siderophores could provide them with better iron acquisition ability and consequently, rhizospheric stability.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Iron, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.5%
Iron, rod, 500mm, diameter 19.0mm, as drawn, 98+%
Iron, rod, 200mm, diameter 3.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
Iron, rod, 200mm, diameter 30mm, as drawn, armcO« soft ingot 99.8%
Iron, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.15mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, rod, 500mm, diameter 4.8mm, as drawn, 98+%
Iron, rod, 200mm, diameter 100mm, as drawn, armcO« soft ingot 99.8%
Iron, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.38mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, rod, 100mm, diameter 6.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.1mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 3.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Iron, rod, 50mm, diameter 6.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
Iron, rod, 500mm, diameter 3.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%
Iron, tube, 100mm, outside diameter 12.0mm, inside diameter 9mm, wall thickness 1.5mm, annealed, 99.5%
Iron, wire reel, 1m, diameter 0.5mm, hard, 99.99+%
Iron, tube, 500mm, outside diameter 20.0mm, inside diameter 16mm, wall thickness 2.0mm, annealed, 99.5%
Iron, tube, 100mm, outside diameter 15.0mm, inside diameter 12mm, wall thickness 1.5mm, annealed, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, armco« soft ingot 99.8%
Iron, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.5mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, wire reel, 20m, diameter 0.5mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Iron, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.015mm, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.004mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.038mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.004mm, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.005mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.015mm, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.025mm, hard, 99.5%