Inter-kingdom and interspecies interactions are ubiquitous in nature and are important for the survival of species and ecological balance. The investigation of microbe-microbe interactions is essential for understanding the in vivo activities of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, are two opportunistic pathogens that interact in various polymicrobial infections in humans. To determine how P. aeruginosa affects the physiology of C. albicans and vice versa, we compared the proteomes of each species in mixed biofilms versus single-species biofilms. In addition, extracellular proteins were analyzed. We observed that, in mixed biofilms, both species showed differential expression of virulence proteins, multidrug resistance-associated proteins, proteases and cell defense, stress and iron-regulated proteins. Furthermore, in mixed biofilms, both species displayed an increase in mutability compared with monospecific biofilms. This characteristic was correlated with the downregulation of enzymes conferring protection against DNA oxidation. In mixed biofilms, P. aeruginosa regulates its production of various molecules involved in quorum sensing and induces the production of virulence factors (pyoverdine, rhamnolipids and pyocyanin), which are major contributors to the ability of this bacterium to cause disease. Overall, our results indicate that interspecies competition between these opportunistic pathogens enhances the production of virulence factors and increases mutability and thus can alter the course of host-pathogen interactions in polymicrobial infections.